Difference between revisions of "Italy - General Information"

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==National Railway System==
 
==National Railway System==
Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane S.p.A. ([http://www.fsitaliane.it FS]). Companies in the Gruppo Ferrovia dello Stato Italiane include:
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Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane S.p.A. ([http://www.fsitaliane.it FS]).
===National Railway Operator===
 
*[http://www.trenitalia.com/ Società Trenitalia S.p.A.], generally known just as Trenitalia, has operational and commercial responsibility for passenger and freight train operations.
 
*Most regional services in Lombardia (whether on RFI or FNM-LeNord tracks) are managed by  [http://www.trenord.it/it/home.aspx Trenord], a joint venture between Trenitalia and LeNord, which is part of the FNM group (see Private Railways).
 
  
===Infrastructure Authority===
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==National Railway Operators==
*[http://www.rfi.it/ RFI S.p.A.], generally known as Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, is responsible for infrastructure.
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*[http://www.trenitalia.com/ ''Società Trenitalia S.p.A.''], generally known just as Trenitalia, is the government-owned company with operational and commercial responsibility for most passenger and freight train operations.
*TAV S.p.A. [http://tav.ferroviedellostato.it tav.ferroviedellostato.it] is responsible for development of the high speed routes Torino – Padova and Milano – Napoli.  TAV denotes Treno Alta Velocita.  
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*Most regional services in Lombardia (whether on RFI or FNM-LeNord tracks) are managed by  [http://www.trenord.it/it/home.aspx ''Trenord''], a joint venture between Trenitalia and LeNord, which is part of the FNM group (see Private Railways).
*Italferr, the Italian State Railways Group engineering firm, operates in the Italian and international markets in the field of railway transport engineering.
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*The Paris - Milano night service and the Marseille - Milano day trains are branded as [https://www.thello.com/?iLangID=3 ''Thello''].  This was initially a joint venture between Trenitalia and TransDev, but is now entirely a Trenitalia operation.  SNCF alone operates the Paris - Milano day trains.
*[http://www.grandistazioni.it Grandi Stazioni S.p.A.] is responsible for major stations40% of the company is owned by Eurostazioni SpA, a joint venture of SNCF, Pirelli, Benneton and Caltagirone.
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*International day trains via Brennero are jointly operated by DB, ÖBB and FNM.
*[http://http://www.centostazioni.it/ Centostazioni] is responsible for medium sized stations.
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*''Nuovo Trasporto Viaggiatore S.p.A'', trading as [http://www.italotreno.it Italo] is an open access operator of high-speed services, principally Torino, Milano and Venezia to Roma, Napoli and Salerno.
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Some smaller railway companies, including Ferrovia Adriatico Sangritana, Ferrovia del Gargano, SAD Trasporto Locale S.p.A/SAD Nahverkehr GmbH, GTT and MetroCampania NordEast, work passenger services over RFI lines.  They mostly provide local services in the vicinity of their own lines. An increasing number of operators work freight trains in Italy.
  
 
==Language==
 
==Language==
Italian. Some German is spoken in the Alto Adige (Süd Tirol) region, and some French in the Valle d'Aosta.
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Italian. German is widely spoken in the Alto Adige (Süd Tirol) region, and some French in the Valle d'Aosta.
  
 
==Currency==
 
==Currency==
Line 28: Line 27:
  
 
===Journey Planner===
 
===Journey Planner===
[http://www.trenitalia.com www.trenitalia.com]
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*FS: The [https://www.trenitalia.com/en.html Trenitalia journey planner] used to steer the user towards more expensive high speed services wherever possible. However it is now possible to select 'ALL TRAINS', 'FRECCE' (high speed services) or 'REGIONAL'. Choosing Regional for a main line journey may provide the option of using the slightly slower but often considerably cheaper RV (''Regio Veloce'') trains for a journey between two cities.
 +
The "Biglietto Veloce/Fast Ticket" machines provided at main stations are a very useful means of (re)planning a journey 'on the hoof' if travellers need to change their plans.
 +
*Lombardia: Use the [http://www.trenord.it Trenord] journey planner for services in Lombardia as it gives regional services, especially those using the Milano ''Passante'', which are not shown at all on the FS journey planner.
  
 
===Downloadable Timetable===
 
===Downloadable Timetable===
*FS: No official source identified
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*FS: Timetables, titled as ''In Treno'', are issued twice yearly, in June and December.  National and regional timetables can be downloaded from the [https://www.trenitalia.com/it/informazioni/orario_ferroviario.html Orario Ferroviario page] of the Trenitalia website.  New timetables are not normally available until the day they become valid.
*[http://www.trenord.it Trenord]: ''> Media & News > Avvisi''. Then (as at January 2012) "''Orario ferroviario [in vigore dall'11 dicembre 2011]''"
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 +
*Trenord: Timetables for individual local routes in the Milano area can be downloaded from the [http://www.trenord.it/it/orari/scarica-orario-ferroviario-(1).aspx Trenord website], but this information is also provided in the Trenitalia timetable.
  
 
===Printed Timetable===
 
===Printed Timetable===
The FS official timetable "In Treno" contains FS services and shows some, but not all, private lines. It is published (in Italian only) in a nationwide version (on CD as well) and also in 12 regional versions. It is on sale at bookstalls, but not generally at ticket offices, and includes route diagrams which show major stations only.
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With effect from 15 June 2014 the "In Treno Tutt'Italia", which is the official Trenitalia timetable, was discontinued in printed format.  
The "Pozzorario Generale", which was published twice yearly by Pozzo Gros Monti Spa, appears to have ceased publication. However, an alternative publication "L'Orario Generale Veltro Palagi" is published by [http://www.orariveltro.it/ Librerie Tempolibre] and should be available from some bookshops.
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 +
A printed timetable for Frecciarossa, Frecciargento and Frecciabianca  services called "Orario Le Frecce" is available, at no cost, from ticket offices.
 +
 
 +
The only comprehensive paper timetable, "Orario Veltropalagi", ceased being published in June 2019.
 +
 
 +
===<div id="ANRT"></div>Additional Notes on reading the Timetable===
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Two useful symbols exist which show the booked route for trains not calling at a station: in the middle of the train column, a vertical bar "|" means that the train passes through the station without stopping, whereas a dot "." means that the train does not pass through that station but instead takes a different route.
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 +
===Real Time Train Tracker===
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[http://www.viaggiatreno.it ViaggiaTreno]
  
 
===Engineering Information and Strikes===
 
===Engineering Information and Strikes===
 
Engineering Work (''Lavori''): [http://www.trenitalia.com www.trenitalia.com] and click on the following headings: "''Informazioni per chi viaggia''" > "''Infomobilità''" > "''I lavori programmati''". This gives details of engineering work month by month.
 
Engineering Work (''Lavori''): [http://www.trenitalia.com www.trenitalia.com] and click on the following headings: "''Informazioni per chi viaggia''" > "''Infomobilità''" > "''I lavori programmati''". This gives details of engineering work month by month.
  
Strikes (''Scioperi''): [http://www.trenitalia.com www.trenitalia.com] and click on the following headings: "''Informazioni per chi viaggia''" > "''In caso di sciopero''" to display information on forthcoming strikes. A certain minimum number of trains, essentially for travel to and from work/school and guaranteed by law ("''Servizi essenziali in caso di sciopero (legge 12 giugno 1990, n.146)''") to run on strike days, are also listed in this section.
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Strikes (''Scioperi''): [http://www.trenitalia.com www.trenitalia.com] and click on the following headings: "''Informazioni per chi viaggia''" > "''In caso di sciopero''" to display information on forthcoming strikes. A certain minimum number of trains, essentially for travel to and from work/school, and guaranteed by law ("''Servizi essenziali in caso di sciopero (legge 12 giugno 1990, n.146)''") to run on strike days, are also listed in this section.
  
 
The Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport provides basic details of [http://www.mit.gov.it/mit/site.php?p=scioperi forthcoming strikes].
 
The Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport provides basic details of [http://www.mit.gov.it/mit/site.php?p=scioperi forthcoming strikes].
Line 50: Line 61:
 
==Maps==
 
==Maps==
 
===Printed Maps===
 
===Printed Maps===
*“Atlante ferroviaro d'Italia e Slovenia” (ISBN 978-3-89494-129-1) published by [http://www.schweers-wall.de Verlag Schweers + Wall GmbH] in German and Italian, similar to atlases from the same publisher for Germany, Austria and Switzerland.
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*“Atlante ferroviaro d'Italia e Slovenia” (ISBN 978-3-89494-129-1) published by [http://www.schweers-wall.de Verlag Schweers + Wall GmbH] in German and Italian, shows railways at 1:300.000 scale, similar to atlases from the same publisher for Germany, Austria and Switzerland.
*European Railway Atlas: Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece by M.G. Ball (1991) (ISBN 0-7110-2087-6)
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*[http://www.europeanrailwayatlas.com European Railway Atlas] by M.G. Ball (2008 onwards)
*[http://www.europeanrailwayatlas.com/index.html European Railway Atlas] by M.G. Ball (2008 onwards)
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*The [https://www.touringclub.it/ Touring Club Italiano] publishes extremely attractive 1:200.000 sheet maps and atlases which depict railways to a very high standard. They are generally accurate, though some railways that have closed or are still under construction appear as if open. The three-volume road atlas includes 1:80.000 enlargements of the major urban areas, on which railways are depicted well. Touring Club Italiano publications are not sold at many stations, but can be obtained from good bookshops in Italy (or outlets such as Stanfords in London).
*The Touring Club Italiano publishes extremely attractive 1:200.000 sheet maps and atlases depict railways to a very high standard. They are generally accurate, though some railways that have closed or are still under construction appear as if open. The three-volume road atlas includes 1:80.000 enlargements of the major urban areas, on which railways are depicted well. Touring Club Italiano publications are not sold at many stations, but can be obtained from good bookshops in Italy (or outlets such as Stanfords in London).
+
 
 
===Web-based Maps===
 
===Web-based Maps===
 
*[http://www.sporenplan.nl/ Sporenplan] has a small number of on-line schematic track diagrams.  Click on "Sporenplannen" on the left hand side for a map showing the countries covered.
 
*[http://www.sporenplan.nl/ Sporenplan] has a small number of on-line schematic track diagrams.  Click on "Sporenplannen" on the left hand side for a map showing the countries covered.
Line 60: Line 71:
  
 
==Ticketing==
 
==Ticketing==
Tickets and reservations issued in Italy must be validated before use by stamping them in "''obliteratrici''", yellow machines found at stations: it is not possible to buy or stamp them on board a train. Having an unstamped ticket or none at all will require payment of the full ticket price plus a fine. However it is not unusual for these machines to be broken or out of service ("''fuori servizio''"), so time should be allowed to find alternative machines or contact a member of staff if no working machine can be found.
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Tickets and reservations issued in Italy must be validated before use by stamping them in "''obliteratrici''", green machines (or possibly yellow for the older remaining ones) at stations: it is not possible to buy or stamp them on board a train. Having an unstamped ticket or none at all will require payment of the full ticket price plus a fine. However it is not unusual for these machines to be broken or out of service ("''fuori servizio''").  In that event it is acceptable for travellers to self-validate the ticket, using indelible ink to write on it the date, time and departure station, and tearing the ticket slightly.  It is not  necessary to validate tickets (i) bought on line and which show a specific train (time and date) or (ii) which include a reservation and can only be used on a specified train.
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 +
Tickets for Trenitalia regional trains are valid for only one day and for only four hours from the time of validation. Passengers can continue to their destination on the same train if still travelling when the four hours expire. If a ticket was purchased in advance it can be changed for one valid on a different date, but this must be done before its validity starts; there may be a charge for this.
  
Many smaller stations no longer have staffed booking offices or may be staffed for only a limited period. Ticket machines are usually provided but these too may be broken or out of service. Some ticket machines give change in coins but others give only a credit slip, printed on a blank ticket. These credits can be exchanged for cash at any FS booking office or used to purchase further tickets. This can be somewhat time consuming as the transaction has to be keyed into the system, evidence of identity (such as a passport) presented and a receipt signed.
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Many smaller stations no longer have staffed booking offices or may be staffed for only a limited period. Ticket machines may be provided but not always; it may be necessary to purchase tickets from a neighbouring tobacconist (''Tabacchi''), bar or similar establishment, which may be some distance from the station. A list of these is usually posted at the station. Ticket machines too may be broken or out of service. Some ticket machines give change in coins but others give only a credit slip, printed on a blank ticket. These credits can be exchanged for cash at any FS booking office or used to purchase further tickets. This can be somewhat time consuming as the transaction has to be keyed into the system, evidence of identity (such as a passport) presented and a receipt signed.
  
 
Passengers holding international return tickets issued in Italy are required to have them stamped by the train conductor upon re-entering the country. Tickets may be used any time up to two months from date of sale, but are valid for a much shorter period from time of stamping. Those for journeys less than 200 km are valid for 6 hours from the time of stamping; those for 200 km or more for 24 hours.
 
Passengers holding international return tickets issued in Italy are required to have them stamped by the train conductor upon re-entering the country. Tickets may be used any time up to two months from date of sale, but are valid for a much shorter period from time of stamping. Those for journeys less than 200 km are valid for 6 hours from the time of stamping; those for 200 km or more for 24 hours.
  
Reservations are compulsory on National service trains - defined as Eurostar Italia Alta Velocità (AV and AV Fast), Eurostar Italia (ES* and ES* Fast), Eurostar City (ES* City), Intercity (IC), Intercity Notte [night] (ICN) and Express (E).
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Reservations are compulsory on National service trains - defined as Frecciarossa Alta Velocità [Red Arrow High Speed], Frecciargento Alta Velocità [Silver Arrow High Speed], Frecciabianca [White Arrow], Intercity (''IC''), Intercity Notte [night] (''ICN''), EuroCity (''EC'') and EuroCity Notte (''ECN'').
Overnight trains (ICN and E) offer Excelsior Wagon Lit (sleeping) cars and National Couchettes (CC and WL). Boarding these trains without a ticket will incur payment of a surcharge in addition to the ticket price.
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Overnight trains offer Excelsior Wagon Lit (sleeping) cars and National Couchettes (CC and WL). Boarding these trains without a ticket will incur payment of a surcharge in addition to the ticket price.
 
Reservations are not possible on Regional trains.
 
Reservations are not possible on Regional trains.
  
A useful regional ticket is available for the Lombardia region [http://www.trasporti.regione.lombardia.it www.trasporti.regione.lombardia.it]. Select ''Tariffe e agevolazioni'' > ''Biglietti e abbonamenti Io Viaggio'' > ''Io viaggio ovunque in Lombardia'' to obtain details of the ticket. This is available for one month (''Abbonamento mensile integrato'') and for 1, 2, 3 or 7 (''Biglietti integrati per 1, 2, 3 o 7 giorni'') days. Information on its validity is found by selecting ''Tariffe e agevolazioni'' > ''Carta Regionale di Trasporto'' >
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A useful regional ticket is available for the Lombardia region [http://www.trasporti.regione.lombardia.it www.trasporti.regione.lombardia.it]. Select ''Tariffe e agevolazioni'' > ''io Viaggio'' > ''Io viaggio ovunque in Lombardia'' to obtain details of the ticket. This is available for one month (''Abbonamento mensile integrato'') and for 1, 2, 3 or 7 (''Biglietti integrati per 1, 2, 3 o 7 giorni'') days. Information on its validity is found by selecting ''Tariffe e agevolazioni'' > ''Carta Regionale di Trasporto'' >
''Mezzi di trasporto e validità della CRT''. A PDF map showing the area covered can be found on the [http://www.trenord.it/it/chi-siamo/le-linee.aspx ''Trenord'' website].
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''Mezzi di trasporto e validità della CRT''. A PDF map showing the area covered can be found on the [http://www.trenord.it/media/616783/lineer_dic2012_a4.pdf ''Trenord'' website].
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 +
FS introduced in March 2019 a combined train+bus ticket between Roma Termini and Ciampino Airport, linked to the ATRAL bus company. This avoids the unreliability of the direct coach services and was at the time of introduction cheaper than the coach.
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 +
Tickets for private (non-FS) railways are rarely if ever available from FS ticket offices. If the railway does not have its own ticket office, tickets are normally available from a neighbouring tobacconist (''Tabacchi''), bar or similar establishment. Prospective travellers are strongly advised to look at the railway's website for a list of such establishments, as there may well be no indication on the premises that they sell these tickets.
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==Infrastructure==
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===Infrastructure Authority===
 +
*[http://www.rfi.it/ RFI S.p.A.], generally known as Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, is responsible for infrastructure.
 +
*TAV S.p.A. is responsible for development of high speed routes; TAV denotes Treno Alta Velocita.
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*Italferr, the Italian State Railways Group engineering firm, operates in the Italian and international markets in the field of railway transport engineering.
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*[http://www.grandistazioni.it Grandi Stazioni S.p.A.] is responsible for fourteen major stations.  40% of the company is owned by Eurostazioni SpA, a joint venture of SNCF, Pirelli, Benneton and Caltagirone.
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 +
===Network Statement===
 +
The [http://www.rfi.it/rfi-en/Railway-infrastructure-access/Network-Statement/NETWORK-STATEMENT Network Statement] page gives access to downloadable Network Statements.  These give very general information.  Specific information about the network is provided on a website with restricted access.
  
==Gauge==
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===Gauge===
 
Standard. Some private lines are narrow gauge.
 
Standard. Some private lines are narrow gauge.
  
==Electrification==
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===Electrification===
 
3kV dc. The majority of the Torino – Novara – Milano – Bologna – Firenze and Roma – Napoli high speed lines are electrified at 25 kV 50 Hz, as is Milano – Verona – Padova - still under construction. .  
 
3kV dc. The majority of the Torino – Novara – Milano – Bologna – Firenze and Roma – Napoli high speed lines are electrified at 25 kV 50 Hz, as is Milano – Verona – Padova - still under construction. .  
  
==Rule of the road==
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===Rule of the road===
 
Left
 
Left
  
==Private Railways==
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===Distances===
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The best source of information on distances is the "''Atlante ferroviaro d'Italia e Slovenia''". See [[#Printed Maps|Printed Maps]].
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Distances for individual FS lines are also available at https://normativaesercizio.rfi.it/Default.aspx
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==Other Railways==
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'''ARST S.p.A''': Passenger services on narrow-gauge lines in Sardegna.  Operating throughout the year: Sassari - Sorso; Sassari - Alghero; Nuoro - Macomer;  Cagliari - Isili. (950mm gauge).  See [https://egtre.info/wiki/Italy_(Sardegna)_-_Lines_with_Obscure_or_Sparse_passenger_services#TreninoVerde| Sardegna obscure services] for details of summer services over some other lines.  [http://arst.sardegna.it/index.html arst.sardegna.it/index.html]
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'''Ente Autonomo Volturno E.A.V. S.r.l''' has brought together various operators in the Napoli area.  S Maria Capua Vetere - Piedimonte Matese, Cancello - Benevento; Circumvesuviana lines south and east of Napoli (950mm gauge, electrified at 1500 V dc); Linee Flegree lines Napoli - Licola and Torregaveta; Metro Arcobaleno.  [https://www.eavsrl.it/web/ www.eavsrl.it/web] 
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'''Ferrotramviaria S.p.A.''': Bari - Bitonto - Barletta (via Palese and via Aerostazione); Fesca S Girolama - Cecilia (all electrified).  The passenger service between Ruvo and Andria has been suspended since 2016. [http://www.ferrovienordbarese.it www.ferrovienordbarese.it]
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'''Ferrovia Circumetnea''': Catania Borgo - Randazzo - Riposto (950mm gauge).  Also operates the Catania Metro (standard gauge, electrified).  [http://www.circumetnea.it www.circumetnea.it]
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'''Ferrovia del Gargano S.r.l.''': San Severo - Peschici (electrified); Foggia - Lucera [http://www.ferroviedelgargano.com www.ferroviedelgargano.com]
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'''Ferrovia Genova Casella S.r.l.''': Genova Piazza Manin - Casella (metre gauge, electrified) [http://www.ferroviagenovacasella.it www.ferroviagenovacasella.it]
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'''Ferrovie Appulo-Lucane''': Bari Centrale - Gravina in Puglia - Avigliano Luciana; Potenza Citta - Avigliano Citta; Altamura – Matera Sud (950 mm gauge).  The service is suspended between Genzano and Avigliano Lucania [http://www.fal-srl.it www.fal-srl.it]
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'''Ferrovie della Calabria S.r.l.''': Passenger train services operate between Catanzaro Lido, Catanzaro Città and Soveria Mannelli only.  No service is advertised on other lines: Cosenza to Soveria Mannelli and S Giovanni in Fiore and Gioia Tauro to Sinopoli and Cinquefrondi, apart from a tourist operation between Moccone - San Nicola Silvana Mansio on the line to S Giovanni in Fiore. [http://www.ferroviedellacalabria.it www.ferroviedellacalabria.it]
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'''Ferrovie del Sud Est e Servizi Automobolistici S.r.l.''': Bari - Martina-Franca - Taranto; Mungivacca - Casamassima - Putignano; Martina-Franca - Lecce; Novoli - Gallipoli - Casarano; Nardo - Casanaro - Gagliano-Leuca; Lecce - Gagliano-Leuca; Nardo - Zollino; Maglie – Otranto [http://www.fseonline.it www.fseonline.it]. The railway has been a subsidiary of Trenitalia since August 2016.
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'''Gruppo Torinese Trasporti GTT S.p.A.''': Torino Dora - Ceres (electrified); Settimo - Rivarolo Canavese (electrified); Rivarolo Canavese – Pont Canavese (service suspended); Sassi – Superga (electrified rack railway) [http://www.gtt.to.it www.gtt.to.it]
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'''Rete Ferroviaria Toscana (RTF) S.p.A.''': Sinalunga - Arezzo - Pratovecchio Stia (electrified).  The service is operated by Trasporto Ferroviario Toscano S.p.A. [http://www.trasportoferroviariotoscano.it www.trasportoferroviariotoscano.it]
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'''SAD Trasporto Locale S.p.A/SAD Nahverkehr GmbH''': Merano/Meran – Malles Venosta/Mals; Maria Himmelfahrt/L'Assunta - Klobenstein/Collalbo (electrified tramway).  The company operates local trains on RFI lines in the Bozen/Bolzano area. [https://www.sad.it/it www.sad.it/it]
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'''Società Ferrovie Udine Cividale s.r.I.''': Udine - Cividale del Friuli [http://www.ferrovieudinecividale.it www.ferrovieudinecividale.it]
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'''Società Sistemi Territoriali S.p.A.''': Venezia Mestre – Adria [http://www.sistemiterritorialispa.it www.sistemiterritorialispa.it]
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'''Società Subalpina di Imprese Ferroviare S.p.A.''': Domodossola - Camedo [- Locarno (CH)] (metre gauge, electrified 1200V dc).  In recent years the trading name Ferrovia Vigezzina-Centovalli has been used.  [http://www.vigezzina.com www.vigezzina.com]
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'''Società Unica Abruzzese di Trasporto (T.U.A.) S.p.A.''': Operates passenger services over its own new railway between Lanciano and San Vito-Lanciano and over the Teramo - Giulianova - Pescara and Pescara - San Vito-Lanciano  - Vasto FS lines. Services on its other routes (including the lengthy line to Castel di Sangro) have been replaced by buses or withdrawn entirely. [https://www.tuabruzzo.it/ www.tuabruzzo.it]
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'''Trenitalia TPER''' is a joint venture between Trenitalia and Trasporto Passeggeri Emilia-Romagna.  It operates passenger services over the lines of [http://www.fer.it/ Ferrovie Emilia Romagna]: Casalecchio Garibaldi - Vignola (electrified); Bologna Centrale - Portomaggiore (electrified); Ferrara - Codigoro; Ferrara - Poggio Rusco (electrified); Parma - Suzzara - Poggio Rusco; Guastalla - Reggio Emilia - S Lazzaro; Reggio Emilia - Ciano d'Enza; Reggio Emilia - Sassuolo; Modena - Sassuolo (electrified).  It also operates local trains over RFI lines in Emilia Romagna region. [https://www.tper.it/ www.tper.it]
  
* ATCM S.p.A. (Azienda Del Trasporti Consorziala di Modena): Modena – Sassuolo (electrified) [http://www.atcm.mo.it www.atcm.mo.it]
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'''Trenord S.r.l''' is a joint venture between [https://www.ferrovienord.it/it/ Ferrovienord S.p.A.] and Trenitalia, which operates regional services in LombardiaFNM (previously Ferrovie Nord Milano) owns the following lines: Milano Nord Cadorno - Asso; Milano Bovisa - Laveno Mombello Nord; Saronno - Como Nord Lago; Saronno - Novara; Saronno - Seregno; Busto Arsizio - Malpensa Aeroporto (all electrified); Brescia - Edolo; Bornato-Calino - Rovato. [http://www.trenord.it www.trenord.it]
* Circumvesuviana S.r.l.: Local lines south and east of Napoli (950mm gauge, electrified at 1500 V dc) [http://www.vesuviana.it www.vesuviana.it]
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* Ferrotramviaria S.p.A.: Bari - Bitonto - Barletta (electrified) [http://www.ferrovienordbarese.it www.ferrovienordbarese.it]
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'''Trentino Trasporti S.p.A''': Trento - Mezzana (metre gauge, electrified) [http://www.ttspa.it www.ttspa.it]
* Ferrovia Adriatico Sangritana S.P.A.: Operates passenger services over its own new railway between Lanciano and San Vito-Lanciano and over the Teramo - Giulianova - Pescara and Pescara - San Vito-Lanciano  - Vasto FS lines. Services on its other routes (including the lengthy line to Castel di Sangro) have been replaced by buses or withdrawn entirely. [http://www.sangritana.it www.sangritana.it]
+
 
* Ferrovia Centrale Umbra S.r.l.: Terni - Perugia - Sansepolcro; Perugia Ponte S Giovanni - Perugia S Anna (in course of re-electrification) [http://www.fcu.it www.fcu.it]
+
'''Umbria TPL e Mobilità S.p.A.''': Terni - Perugia - Sansepolcro; Perugia Ponte S Giovanni - Perugia S Anna. Train services were replaced by buses in September 2017, pending upgrading the network, and have only resumed between Perugia Ponte S Giovanni and Città di Castello on the Sansepolcro line. [http://www.umbriamobilita.it/it www.umbriamobilita.it/it]  
* Ferrovia Circumetnea: Catania Borgo - Randazzo - Riposto (950mm gauge).  Also operates the Catania Metro (standard gauge, electrified).  [http://www.circumetnea.it www.circumetnea.it]
 
* Ferrovia Elettriche ed Autoservizi Riuniti Bolzano: L'Assunta/Maria Himmelfahrt - Soprabolzano/Oberbozen - Collalbo/Klobenstein (metre gauge, electrified 1500V dc) [http://www.sii.bz.it www.sii.bz.it]
 
* Ferrovia del Gargano: San Severo - Peschici (electrified); Foggia - Lucera [http://www.ferroviedelgargano.com www.ferroviedelgargano.com]
 
* Ferrovia Genova Casella S.r.l.: Genova Piazza Manin - Casella (metre gauge, electrified) [http://www.ferroviagenovacasella.it www.ferroviagenovacasella.it]
 
* Ferrovie Appulo-Lucane: Bari Centrale - Gravina in Puglia - Potenza Citta; Avigliano Luciana - Avigliano Citta; Altamura – Matera Sud (950 mm gauge) [http://www.fal-srl.it www.fal-srl.it]
 
* Ferrovie della Calabria S.r.l.: Cosenza - Catanzaro Citta - Catanzaro Lido (includes a rack section); Pedace - Camigliatello; Camigliatello - S Giovanni In Fiore (no passenger service other than excursions between Camigliatello and San Nicola Silvana Mansio, temporarily suspended as at summer 2011); Gioia Tauro - Palmi; Gioia Tauro - Cinquefrondi (950 mm gauge). The services from Gioia Tauro were suspended at short notice on 7 June 2011 owing to the poor condition of some structures[http://www.ferroviedellacalabria.it www.ferroviedellacalabria.it]
 
* Ferrovie Emilia Romagna S.r.l.: Bologna Centrale – Portmaggiore, Codigoro - Ferrara - Poggio Rusco – Suzzara – Parma [http://www.fer-online.it www.fer-online.it]
 
* Ferrovie della Sardegna: Sassari - Sorso; Sassari - Alghero; Sassari - Nulvi; Nulvi - Palau Marina (no passenger service); Nuoro - Macomer; Macomer - Bosa (no passenger service); Cagliari - Isili; Isili - Sorgono (no regular passenger service); Mandas - Arbatax (no regular passenger service) (950mm gauge) [http://www.ferroviesardegna.it www.ferroviesardegna.it]
 
* Ferrovie del Sud Est e Servizi Automobolistici S.r.l.: Bari - Martina-Franca - Taranto; Mungivacca - Casamassima - Putignano; Martina-Franca - Lecce; Novoli - Gallipoli - Casarano; Nardo - Casanaro - Gagliano-Leuca; Lecce - Gagliano-Leuca; Nardo - Zollino; Maglie – Otranto [http://www.fseonline.it www.fseonline.it]
 
* GTT S.p.A. (Gruppo Torinese Trasporti): Torino Dora - Ceres (electrified); Settimo - Rivarolo Canavese (electrified); Rivarolo Canavese – Pont Canavese; Sassi – Superga (electrified rack railway) [http://www.gtt.to.it www.gtt.to.it]
 
* MetroCampania NordEast S.r.l.: S Maria Capua Vetere - Piedimonte Matese, Cancello - Benevento (electrified) [http://www.metrocampanianordest.it www.metrocampanianordest.it]
 
* Reggio Emilia Azienda Consorziale Trasporti: Reggio Emilia - Guastalla; Reggio Emilia - Sassuolo; Reggio Emilia - Ciano d'Enza [http://www.actre.it www.actre.it]
 
* SAD Trasporto Locale S.p.A: Merano/Meran – Malles Venosta/Mals [http://www.sii.bz.it www.sii.bz.it]
 
* Sistemi Territoriali S.p.A.: Venezia Mestre – Adria [http://www.sistemiterritorialispa.it www.sistemiterritorialispa.it]
 
* Società per l'Esercizio di Pubblici Servizi S.p.A.: Napoli Montesanto - Torregaveta; Napoli Montesanto - Licola - Torregaveta (electrified) [http://www.sepsa.it www.sepsa.it]
 
* Società del Gruppo FNM: Milano Nord Cadorno - Asso; Milano Bovisa - Laveno Mombello Nord; Saronno - Como Nord Lago; Saronno - Novara; Busto Arsizio Nord - Malpensa Aeroporto (all electrified); Saronno - Seregno (freight only); Brescia - Edolo; Bornato-Calino - Rovato (freight only). Although FNM owns these lines, the passenger services (together with Trenitalia regional services in Lombardia) are operated by [http://www.trenord.it/it/home.aspx Trenord S.r.l], owned jointly by Trenitalia and [http://www.fnmgroup.it/en/index.php FNM].
 
* Società Ferrovie Udine Cividale s.r.I.: Udine - Cividale del Friuli [http://www.ferrovieudinecividale.it www.ferrovieudinecividale.it]
 
* Società Subalpina di Imprese Ferroviare S.p.A.: Domodossola - Camedo (metre gauge, electrified 1200V dc) [http://www.vigezzina.com www.vigezzina.com]
 
* Società Suburbana FBV: Casalecchio di Reno - Vignola (electrified; operated by Ferrovie Emilia Romagna) [http://www.suburbanafbv.it www.suburbanafbv.it]
 
* Trasporto Ferroviario Toscano S.p.A.: Sinalunga - Arezzo - Pratovecchio Stia (electrified) [http://www.trasportoferroviariotoscano.it www.trasportoferroviariotoscano.it]
 
* Trentino Trasporti S.p.A: Trento - Marilleva (metre gauge, electrified) [http://www.ttspa.it www.ttspa.it]
 
Note: services on some of these lines appear in both "In Treno" and "Pozzo", some in one but not the other, and some in neither.
 
  
 
Many private railways operate through services onto FS lines, and there are a few private lines over which FS trains regularly operate.
 
Many private railways operate through services onto FS lines, and there are a few private lines over which FS trains regularly operate.
Line 116: Line 160:
 
==Tourist lines==
 
==Tourist lines==
  
* Mendrisio to Cantello (partly in Switzerland) [http://www.clubsangottardo.ch www.clubsangottardo.ch]
+
* Ceva - Ormea [http://www.piemontevic.com/viaggi-treno-storico-valle-tanaro.html www.piemontevic.com/viaggi-treno-storico-valle-tanaro.html]
 
* Palazzolo-sull'Oglio - Paratico-Sarnico [http://www.ferrovieturistiche.it www.ferrovieturistiche.it]
 
* Palazzolo-sull'Oglio - Paratico-Sarnico [http://www.ferrovieturistiche.it www.ferrovieturistiche.it]
* Ferrovie della Sardegna: Occasional trains over non-passenger lines [http://www.treninoverde.com www.treninoverde.com]
 
 
* Asciano - Monte-Antico [http://www.ferrovieturistiche.it www.ferrovieturistiche.it]
 
* Asciano - Monte-Antico [http://www.ferrovieturistiche.it www.ferrovieturistiche.it]
The railway museum at Trieste Campo Marzio [http://www.retecivica.trieste.it/museofer/ www.retecivica.trieste.it/museofer] occasionally runs historic trains over freight lines in Trieste.
+
* Moccone – S Nicola-Silvana Mansio [http://www.trenodellasila.it/ www.trenodellasila.it/]
 +
* Sulmona - Isernia (but often only to Roccaraso) [http://www.lerotaie.com/ www.lerotaie.com]
 +
 
 +
See also [[Italy_(Sardegna)_-_Lines_with_Obscure_or_Sparse_passenger_services#TreninoVerde| Ferrovie della Sardegna]]
 +
 
 +
The railway museum at Trieste Campo Marzio [http://www.retecivica.trieste.it/museofer/ www.retecivica.trieste.it/museofer] has occasionally run historic trains over freight lines in Trieste, but appears not to have done so since 2014.  In 2017 it was announced that the museum is to be renovated and managed by Fondazione FS, who wish to run special trains from it.
  
 
==Metro==
 
==Metro==
Catania, Genova, Milano, Napoli, Roma, Torino.
+
Catania, Genova, Milano, Napoli, Roma, Torino. Track plans for the Milano and Torino systems are available on the [http://carto.metro.free.fr/ carto.metro.tramway.rer.funiculaire site].
  
 
Some Trenitalia suburban services are referred to "Metro" and this may give rise to confusion, particularly in Napoli.
 
Some Trenitalia suburban services are referred to "Metro" and this may give rise to confusion, particularly in Napoli.
 +
 +
The Roma Metro company also operates the lengthy rural line to Viterbo via Catalano.
  
 
==Trams==
 
==Trams==
Genova, Milano, Napoli, Roma, Sassari, Torino, Trieste
+
Firenze, Genova, Klobenstein/Collalbo, Messina, Milano, Napoli, Palermo, Roma, Sassari, Torino, Trieste [which has been plagued by reliability issues and has been closed since 16 August 2016]
 +
 
 +
Some links are available on the [http://sinfin.net/railways/world/italy.html Sinfin.net site].
 +
 
 +
See also [[Italy_-_Tram_services_over_obscure_routes|Italy - Tram services over obscure routes]].
  
 
==Recent and Future Changes==
 
==Recent and Future Changes==
 +
===General===
 +
The absorption of the Ferrovie Sud Est by the Ferrovie dello Stato Group was agreed on 23 May 2016 owing to the excessive debts of the former.
 +
 +
The Emilia-Romagna Region allocated funds in April 2016 to electrify the FER lines between Reggio Emilia and Sassuolo and Guastalla. Work is expected to be completed during 2020. Further electrification of the FER network is proposed, on the Parma - Guastalla - Suzzara - Poggio Rusco and Ferrara - Codigoro lines.
 +
 +
Most main lines in Italy are electrified and work continues on electrification of secondary routes.  Work under way includes lines the line to Campobasson and various routes in the north of Veneto province.  The SAD line to Malles Venosta is also being electrified.
 +
 
===Openings===
 
===Openings===
  
Due to the mountainous nature of much of Italy, most lines are very scenic. However, the original railways were very slow, due to sharp curves and steep gradients. For much of the 20th century, cut offs and completely new main lines were built to speed up services. Foremost among these is the Roma - Firenze direttissima. Unlike high-speed lines in France and Germany, this does not have special signalling and can be used by most trains without modification. The high speed trunk line from Torino to Salerno is now complete, with the openings on 13 December 2009 between Novara and Milano, Milano and Bologna, Bologna and Firenze and between Napoli and Salerno, and the extension of the Roma - Napoli line from Gricignano into Napoli. They are electrified for most of their length at 25KV 50Hz and used only by a limited train fleet, apart from Napoli - Salerno which is common user and electrified at 3kV dc. The high speed line from Milano to Padova is still under construction. There is an ambitious plan for a new line, in a long tunnel under Mont Cenis, to link Torino with Lyon and the French high speed network, but this is many years from realisation.
+
Due to the mountainous nature of much of Italy, most lines are very scenic. However, the original railways were very slow, due to sharp curves and steep gradients. For much of the 20th century, cut offs and completely new main lines were built to speed up services. Foremost among these is the Roma - Firenze direttissima. Unlike high-speed lines in France and Germany, this does not have special signalling and can be used by most trains without modification. The high speed trunk line from Torino to Salerno is now complete, with the openings on 13 December 2009 between Novara and Milano, Milano and Bologna, Bologna and Firenze and between Napoli and Salerno, and the extension of the Roma - Napoli line from Gricignano into Napoli. The direct connection between the Roma - Napoli and Napoli - Salerno high speed lines, avoiding Napoli Centrale, became available for traffic on 13 October 2013.
 +
 
 +
The Bologna Passante, taking the high speed under Bologna Centrale, opened on 22 June 2012. The AV station on the Passante opened with limited facilities in December 2012 and fully in 2013. The next section of the High Speed Line from Milano to Venezia, from Treviglio to Brescia, opened in December 2016.  The high speed line west of Brescia to Padova is still under construction. Contracts have been awarded for design and construction of a high speed line from Napoli to Frasso Telesino, between Caserta and Benevento.  This is seen as the first stage of a high speed route to Bari.  There is an ambitious plan for a new line, in a long tunnel under Mont Cenis, to link Torino with Lyon and the French high speed network, but this is many years from realisation.
 +
 
 +
Many other cut-offs and new lines are under construction, but work may proceed slowly and some projects are suspended periodically.  Routes that include sections which have been rebuilt and diverted significantly in recent years include: Verona to Brennero, Gemona del Friuli to Tarvisio, Ventimiglia to Genova, Parma to La Spezia, parts of the Adriatic coast line, Bari to Taranto, Messina to Palermo and the railway into Siracusa from the north. Another new section of the Ventimiglia to Genova line between San Lorenzo-Cipressa and Andora opened 11 December 2016.
 +
 
 +
Recent urban developments have been construction of metros in Torino and Catania, a tram system in Sassari and a new railway, the Passante, in tunnel under the centre of Milano.  The Passante runs from Certosa to Porta Vittoria and is used by FNM trains, as well as Trenitalia ones, by means of a connection from Nord Bovisa Politecnico.  Some trains continue to Pioltello Limito and others from Porta Vittoria via a reinstated curve to Milano Rogoredo.  Opening of the Passante has been accompanied by a reorganisation of local train services around Milano, including re-introduction of regular trains between Milano S Cristoforo and Milano Lambrate via Porta Romana.  FNM has taken over operation of many local services in Lombardia. 
 +
 
 +
Other recent openings and re-openings (excluding realignment and rebuilding of main lines) are:
 +
 
 +
* In Naples Tram line 1 resumed operation between Poggioreale and via Cristoforo Colombo on 31 January 2020. The rest of Tram Line 1 and Lines 2 & 4 are still suspended due to construction of Metro Line 6.
 +
 
 +
* Castiglione Cosentino avoiding line: One train pair daily from and to Sibari from 16 September 2019.
 +
 
 +
* The electrification of the Bari - Casamassima - Putignano line 1 bis was inaugurated on 12 September 2019.
 +
 
 +
* Savigliano - Saluzzo: 7 January 2019
 +
 
 +
* Palermo - Punta Raisi: Re-opened 9 December 2018, following substantial reconstruction, including a new tunnel in Palermo.
 +
 
 +
* Through trains from Slovenia to Trieste Centrale via Villa Opicina resumed on 9 September 2018.
 +
 
 +
* Varese - Stabio (Switzerland) and Porto Ceresio
 +
 
 +
* Sacile - Maniago: 10 December 2017
 +
 
 +
* Roccapalumbra-Alla - Cammarate San Giovanni Gemini (diversion of the Palermo - Agrigento line via the Lercara Tunnel): 10 December 2017
 +
 
 +
* Ospedale S Paolo - Cecilia (FT): 16 October 2017
 +
 
 +
* Electrification was inaugurated between Bra and Alba on 11 December 2016
 +
 
 +
* Malpensa Aeroporto T1 - Malpensa Aeroporto T2 (FNM): 6 December 2016
 +
 
 +
* Portomaggiore - Dogato (FER): 3 October 2016, but the service was withdrawn from 11 June 2017
 +
 
 +
* Marilleva - Mezzana (TT): 23 July 2016
 +
 
 +
* Apricena Città - San Nicandro Garganico (FdG): 13 June 2016  (Replacing the original line from S Severo)
 +
 
 +
* Fesca S Girolamo - Aerostazione - Bitonto (FT): 19 July 2013 
  
Many other cut-offs and new lines are under construction, but work may proceed slowly and some projects are suspended periodically.  Routes that include sections which have been rebuilt and diverted significantly in recent years include: Verona to Brennero, Gemona del Friuli to Tarvisio, Ventimiglia to Genova, Parma to La Spezia, parts of the Adriatic coast line, Bari to Taranto, Messina to Palermo and the railway into Siracusa from the north.
+
* S Severo - Apricena Città (FdG): 14 December 2014
  
Recent urban developments have been construction of metros in Torino and Catania, a tram system in Sassari and a new railway, the Passante, in tunnel under the centre of Milano.  The Passante runs from Certosa to Porta Vittoria and is used by FNM trains, as well as FS ones, by means of a connection from Nord Bovisa PolitecnicoSome trains continue to Pioltello Limito and others from Porta Vittoria via a reinstated curve to Milano Rogoredo.  Opening of the Passante has been accompanied by a reorganisation of local train services around Milano, including re-introduction of regular trains between Milano S Cristoforo and Milano Lambrate via Porta Romana. Some FNM trains have been extended from Seveso over the link, previously used only for freight, to Camnago-Lentate on the FS main line to Chiasso.
+
A line avoiding Foggia, on the course of a curve closed in 1964, opened on 5 July 2015. This links the Benevento and Bari lines and passenger trains started using it with effect from 28 June 2017; see route [[Italy_(Puglia)_-_Lines_with_Obscure_or_Sparse_passenger_services#BC12|IT20/146]]With effect from 11 March 2016, excursion trains to Porto Empedocle (in Sicily) were extended 0.7 km to Porto Empedocle Succarsale, which was closed in 1978; see route [[Italy_(Sicilia)_-_Lines_with_Obscure_or_Sparse_passenger_services#AGPE|IT20/162]].
  
The line from Merano to Malles-Venosta/Mals has been re-opened and the line from Trent to Malé extended to Marilleva.  New railways have been built to airports at Milano Malpensa and Palermo.  The line from Treviso to Portogruaro Caorle has been electrified and re-opened to passengers.  The ATCM line from Sassuolo has been extended to the FS station at Modena and a passenger service to Bologna reinstated on the Vignola branchThe branch from Foggia to Lucera has also re-opened for passengers. A very minor opening on 23 July 2011 was the extension of the Carbonia branch in Sicilia, 0.7 km along the freight line to a former coal mine, to a new station at Carbonia Serbariu, replacing the existing station.
+
The Ferrovie della Calabria reportedly awarded a contract in July 2014 for the construction of a new 5 km line between Dulcino and Catanzaro Germaneto (the FS station outside the city)In April 2015 funds were allocated for completion of the first section (Valle Aurelia - Vigna Clara) of the never completed Roma northern ring line. It was due to open in June 2016 but there is no sign of when this will happen. In December 2016 funds were allocated for completion of the line from Ferrandina (between Potenza and Metaponto) and Matera, where construction work started in 1985. No date for completion has been specified.
Gravina in Puglia - Gioia del Colle reopened on 6 February 2012 Fabriano - Pergola reopened on 16 April 2012 and Cecina - Volterra the following day.
 
  
 
===Closures===
 
===Closures===
Although many rural lines have a very sparse service, closures have been few in recent years. The most significant was the Sangritana line from S Vito to Castel di Sangro. Although it seems very difficult to withdraw train services in Italy, the pace of closures seems to be accelerating. Castel di Sangro - Carpinone, Avellino - Rocchetta San Antonio Lacedonia and the short Castellammare - Gragnano branch lost their services in December 2010. The 950 mm gauge line from Gioia Tauro to Cinquefrondi was closed at short notice on 7 June 2011 owing to the poor condition of some structures. Gioia Tauro - Palmi has also closed, maybe on the same date although this is uncertain. The Rocchetta S Antonio - Gravina in Puglia - Gioia del Colle line closed in October 2011 (but partially reopened in February 2012) and Sulmona - Castel di Sangro in  December 2011. Service on the 950 mm gauge (Cosenza -) Pedace - Spezzano Sila line was suspended on an unknown date. Trains between Rogliano and Colosimi (the middle section of the 950 mm gauge Cosenza - Catanzaro Lido Ferrovie della Calabria ‘main line’) were replaced by bus, probably on 17 December 2010 when a new rail timetable for this line came into force but maybe prior to that.
 
  
Problems with infrastructure have also given rise to closures which are supposedly temporary but can be quite long lasting, with the possibility of reopening seeming uncertain: Castagnole delle Lanze - Alba in April 2010; Mortara - Casale Monferrato - Asti from September 2010 and Chivasso - Asti in September 2011. In May 2011 the Caltagirone - Gela  section of the Gela - Catania line was closed owing to the collapse of a bridge, apparently due to poor quality of construction. All these lines remain closed as at December 2011.
+
After a period of stability, there were significant line closures from 2006, mainly because of infrastructure in poor condition and no funds for maintenance.  A few lines have closed and been re-opened, but most have remained closed.  In most cases a substitute bus service has been provided, but some of these have later been withdrawn.  In recent years the rate of closure has slowed somewhat.
 +
 
 +
Services over the ''Ferroive del Sardegna'' lines Laconi - Sorgono and Seui - Arbatax were withdrawn from 24 June 2016, but were reinstated in 2017 except between Seui and Gairo.  However, there were no trains between Laconi and Sorgono in 2018 and the closed section of the Arbatax line has been extended to Sadali.
 +
 
 +
The trains between Sassari and Alghero were replaced by buses from October 2018, because of defects with the signalling system.  It reopened on 23 November 2019.
 +
 
 +
Train service withdrawals in 2018:
 +
*409 Rovato Borgo - Bornato Calino
 +
*4 Bologna Corticella - Bologna S Ruffillo (8 December): Use of this section of the Bologna Cintura by a few Frecciarossa trains ceased, following earlier completion of a link from the Padove line to the low level platforms at Bologna Centrale.  This also brought to an end passenger use of the connection to the high speed line to Firenze from Bologna S Ruffillo.
 +
*172 Seregno - Carnate-Usmate (8 December)
 +
 
 +
Train service withdrawals in 2017:
 +
 
 +
* - Rivarolo Canavese - Pont Canavese (GTT) (23 May): May be temporary, but signalling improvements are required.
 +
* - Portomaggiore - Dogato (FER) (11 June): Amazingly, this newly-constructed line had opened only eight months earlier, but is to be converted into a cycle path.
 +
*26 Tortona - Novi Ligure (4 September): Said to be a temporary closure for a period of four years, in connection with construction of a high-speed line between Milano and Genova.
 +
* - Sansepolcro - Terni and Perugia Ponte S Giovanni - Perugia S Anna (FCU) (29 September): Also apparently a temporary closure.
 +
* - Cagnano Varano - Peschici Calenella (FG) (2 December): A result of many unmodernised level crossings on the line. However, the company apparently intends to modernise them and reopen the line at some point.
 +
 
 +
Train service withdrawals in 2015:
 +
 
 +
*60 Ancona - Ancona Marittima (13 December)
 +
*112 Aosta - Prè Saint Didier (24 December)
 +
 
 +
The 950mm ATAC line from Roma Laziali to Giardinetti was cut back 3km to terminate at Centocelle with effect from 3 August 2015 as this section was duplicated by an extension of Metro Line C.
 +
 
 +
Train service withdrawals in 2014:
 +
 
 +
*130 (Novara -) Vignale - Varallo Sesia (15 September)
 +
*88/354 Paola avoiding line (21 December)
  
A contract has been let for a people mover to be built between Pisa Airport and the city, due to open in 2015. The airport branch will presumably then close.
+
Train service withdrawals in 2013:
  
Numerous lines might be considered at risk of closure owing to little use and sparse service, and this process may accelerate as the economic situation worsens in Italy.
+
*330 Benevento - Bosco Redole (13 February) because of a landslide
 +
*125 Vercelli - Casale Monferrato (14 June)
 +
*286 Fabriano - Pergola (13 November) because of a landslide; the line had re-opened as recently as 16 April 2012
 +
*134 Oleggio - Laveno Mombello (December) but had suffered from bus substitution in recent years
 +
*157 Piacenza – Castelvetro (December) which had suffered frequent cancellations because of a shortage of units
 +
*M56 Pisa Aeroporto - Pisa Centrale (December) for replacement by a more direct people mover, which did not open until 18 March 2017
  
The following lines lost their passenger service on and from 17 June 2012:
+
Services between (Gravina in Puglia -) Genzano and Pietragalla (- Potenza) (''Ferrovie Appulo-Lucane'') were substituted by buses from 24 June 2013 or earlier for engineering work which was then expected to last 6 or more months. From 15 December 2014 the section affected was extended from Pietragalla to Avigliano Lucania, with the line south of there served only by trains between Potenza and Avigliano Città. As at June 2018 there is still no indication of when or if the line will reopen.
*102 Pinerolo - Torre Pellice
+
 
*106 Savigliano – Saluzzo - Cuneo
+
Following the introduction of high-speed services between Milano and Napoli there is far less use of connections on and off the Firenze - Roma ''direttissima''.  The ''direttissima'' is being resignalled to ERTMS standards and there are plans to convert it from 3,000 volts dc to 25 kV ac, at least between Arezzo and Orte.  This may well result in no further passenger use of connections to the old main line at Chiusi Nord, Chiusi Sud, Orvieto Nord, Orvieto Sud and Orte Nord.
*108 Cuneo - Mondovì
+
 
*114 Ceva - Ormea
+
===Older Changes===
*122 Asti - Castagnole delle Lanze
+
For details of older changes see [[Italy - Older General Information]].
*124 Alessandria - Nizza Monferrato - Castagnole delle Lanze
 
*125 Vercelli - Casale Monferrato
 
*127 Santhià - Arona
 
*143 Alessandria - Ovada
 
Chivasso - Asti and Casale Monferrato - Asti, where trains have already been replaced by buses, are due to close on the same date. 145 Novi Ligure - Tortona did not close on this date, but the service was reduced.
 
  
 
==Special notes==
 
==Special notes==
 +
Following a serious, head-on collision on Ferrotramviaria line between Bari and Barletta, from September 2016 a 50 km/hr speed limit was imposed on some local (non-FS) lines which do not have an adequate block working system.  From August 2016 there were no passenger trains between Ruvo di Puglia and Andria, pending signalling improvements.  The line between Ruvo di Puglia and Corato re-opened on 4 March 2019, with a suggestion of mid-2020 to Andria. 
  
 
Theft is a particular problem at main stations. Luggage should be closely watched at all times and precautions taken against pickpockets. Some thieves are very young and many operate in groups. A common technique is to create a distraction, such as engaging a traveller in conversation, to draw attention from robbery by accomplices. Crime can also be a problem on overnight trains, which may also be very crowded. It is sensible to book a couchette, at modest cost, as these provide more space and greater security.
 
Theft is a particular problem at main stations. Luggage should be closely watched at all times and precautions taken against pickpockets. Some thieves are very young and many operate in groups. A common technique is to create a distraction, such as engaging a traveller in conversation, to draw attention from robbery by accomplices. Crime can also be a problem on overnight trains, which may also be very crowded. It is sensible to book a couchette, at modest cost, as these provide more space and greater security.
Line 173: Line 302:
 
Departure information at stations, especially in the South, can be sparse and incorrect. Services operated by Ferrovie del Sud Est may vary from the published timetable, particularly south of Lecce. Trains depart at the advertised times, but passengers may be required to change trains at junctions where a through service is shown and, conversely, some connections may work as through trains.
 
Departure information at stations, especially in the South, can be sparse and incorrect. Services operated by Ferrovie del Sud Est may vary from the published timetable, particularly south of Lecce. Trains depart at the advertised times, but passengers may be required to change trains at junctions where a through service is shown and, conversely, some connections may work as through trains.
  
Train ferries between Civitavecchia and Golfo Aranci and between Villa S Giovanni and Messina connect the mainland system with railways on the islands of Sardegna and Sicilia respectively. There is no longer any commercial traffic on the Sardegna train ferry which is just used for rolling stock transfers, though foot passengers are carried. Passenger trains are conveyed by ferry to and from Sicilia.
+
There is a passenger and goods train ferry between Villa S Giovanni and Messina connecting the mainland system with railways on the island of Sicilia. Sardegna is no longer served by train ferry from Civitavecchia on the mainland to Golfo Aranci as the link span and associated trackwork at Civitavecchia were dismantled in Summer 2015. It had been used only for rolling stock transfers for a number of years previously. Any railway vehicles needing to be transferred to Sardegna are conveyed from Villa S Giovanni or Messina.
  
Strikes (scioperi) are quite common, but a guaranteed minimum service is advertised to operate on such occasions. Trenitalia trains supposed to run on strike days are listed in “In Treno” and details are sometimes posted at stations.
+
The Italian for "motor coach" is "pullman", so any reference to travel by pullman is to a trip by road. Although "carrozza" usually means a railway carriage, a journey advertised to be by carrozza (rather than by train) will use a horse-drawn road vehicle.
  
The Italian for "motor coach" is "pullman", so any reference to travel by pullman is to a trip by road. Although "carrozza" usually means a railway carriage, a journey advertised to be by carrozza (rather than by train) will use a horse-drawn road vehicle.
+
===<div id="VATICAN"></div>Vatican City===
 +
RFI owns the 1.27 km Vatican Railway, the world's shortest international railway, built by FS in accordance with the Lateran Treaty of 1929 and opened on 2 October 1934. Until recent years the railway had been used only very rarely by special trains, and with only four Papal trains ever - in 1962, 1979, 2002 and 2011. However, it was electrified in October 2013, which made it considerably easier to operate through trains from the FS network as it was no longer necessary to provide diesel haulage over this short branch. A special tourist train from the Vatican City to Albano Laziale was introduced in September 2015.  See route [[Italy_(Lazio)_-_Lines_with_Obscure_or_Sparse_passenger_services#RSP-CDV|Roma S Pietro - Città del Vaticano]] for further details.
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
* [[Italy]]
+
{{Navbox Italy}}
* [[Italy - Lines with Obscure or Sparse passenger services]]
 

Latest revision as of 20:44, 26 June 2020

Country Name

Italy (Italia)

National Railway System

Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane S.p.A. (FS).

National Railway Operators

  • Società Trenitalia S.p.A., generally known just as Trenitalia, is the government-owned company with operational and commercial responsibility for most passenger and freight train operations.
  • Most regional services in Lombardia (whether on RFI or FNM-LeNord tracks) are managed by Trenord, a joint venture between Trenitalia and LeNord, which is part of the FNM group (see Private Railways).
  • The Paris - Milano night service and the Marseille - Milano day trains are branded as Thello. This was initially a joint venture between Trenitalia and TransDev, but is now entirely a Trenitalia operation. SNCF alone operates the Paris - Milano day trains.
  • International day trains via Brennero are jointly operated by DB, ÖBB and FNM.
  • Nuovo Trasporto Viaggiatore S.p.A, trading as Italo is an open access operator of high-speed services, principally Torino, Milano and Venezia to Roma, Napoli and Salerno.

Some smaller railway companies, including Ferrovia Adriatico Sangritana, Ferrovia del Gargano, SAD Trasporto Locale S.p.A/SAD Nahverkehr GmbH, GTT and MetroCampania NordEast, work passenger services over RFI lines. They mostly provide local services in the vicinity of their own lines. An increasing number of operators work freight trains in Italy.

Language

Italian. German is widely spoken in the Alto Adige (Süd Tirol) region, and some French in the Valle d'Aosta.

Currency

Euro

UIC code

  • FS: numeric 83; alpha I
  • Società del Gruppo FNM: numeric 64; alpha FNM

Timetable

Journey Planner

  • FS: The Trenitalia journey planner used to steer the user towards more expensive high speed services wherever possible. However it is now possible to select 'ALL TRAINS', 'FRECCE' (high speed services) or 'REGIONAL'. Choosing Regional for a main line journey may provide the option of using the slightly slower but often considerably cheaper RV (Regio Veloce) trains for a journey between two cities.

The "Biglietto Veloce/Fast Ticket" machines provided at main stations are a very useful means of (re)planning a journey 'on the hoof' if travellers need to change their plans.

  • Lombardia: Use the Trenord journey planner for services in Lombardia as it gives regional services, especially those using the Milano Passante, which are not shown at all on the FS journey planner.

Downloadable Timetable

  • FS: Timetables, titled as In Treno, are issued twice yearly, in June and December. National and regional timetables can be downloaded from the Orario Ferroviario page of the Trenitalia website. New timetables are not normally available until the day they become valid.
  • Trenord: Timetables for individual local routes in the Milano area can be downloaded from the Trenord website, but this information is also provided in the Trenitalia timetable.

Printed Timetable

With effect from 15 June 2014 the "In Treno Tutt'Italia", which is the official Trenitalia timetable, was discontinued in printed format.

A printed timetable for Frecciarossa, Frecciargento and Frecciabianca services called "Orario Le Frecce" is available, at no cost, from ticket offices.

The only comprehensive paper timetable, "Orario Veltropalagi", ceased being published in June 2019.

Additional Notes on reading the Timetable

Two useful symbols exist which show the booked route for trains not calling at a station: in the middle of the train column, a vertical bar "|" means that the train passes through the station without stopping, whereas a dot "." means that the train does not pass through that station but instead takes a different route.

Real Time Train Tracker

ViaggiaTreno

Engineering Information and Strikes

Engineering Work (Lavori): www.trenitalia.com and click on the following headings: "Informazioni per chi viaggia" > "Infomobilità" > "I lavori programmati". This gives details of engineering work month by month.

Strikes (Scioperi): www.trenitalia.com and click on the following headings: "Informazioni per chi viaggia" > "In caso di sciopero" to display information on forthcoming strikes. A certain minimum number of trains, essentially for travel to and from work/school, and guaranteed by law ("Servizi essenziali in caso di sciopero (legge 12 giugno 1990, n.146)") to run on strike days, are also listed in this section.

The Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport provides basic details of forthcoming strikes.

Bus Information

Note that bus services listed in the timetable may use a nearby bus station or bus stop rather than calling at the FS station. This is not always made clear in the timetable and it is advisable to check at the station. The relevant bus stop can be identified by a "fermata FS" sign.

Maps

Printed Maps

  • “Atlante ferroviaro d'Italia e Slovenia” (ISBN 978-3-89494-129-1) published by Verlag Schweers + Wall GmbH in German and Italian, shows railways at 1:300.000 scale, similar to atlases from the same publisher for Germany, Austria and Switzerland.
  • European Railway Atlas by M.G. Ball (2008 onwards)
  • The Touring Club Italiano publishes extremely attractive 1:200.000 sheet maps and atlases which depict railways to a very high standard. They are generally accurate, though some railways that have closed or are still under construction appear as if open. The three-volume road atlas includes 1:80.000 enlargements of the major urban areas, on which railways are depicted well. Touring Club Italiano publications are not sold at many stations, but can be obtained from good bookshops in Italy (or outlets such as Stanfords in London).

Web-based Maps

Ticketing

Tickets and reservations issued in Italy must be validated before use by stamping them in "obliteratrici", green machines (or possibly yellow for the older remaining ones) at stations: it is not possible to buy or stamp them on board a train. Having an unstamped ticket or none at all will require payment of the full ticket price plus a fine. However it is not unusual for these machines to be broken or out of service ("fuori servizio"). In that event it is acceptable for travellers to self-validate the ticket, using indelible ink to write on it the date, time and departure station, and tearing the ticket slightly. It is not necessary to validate tickets (i) bought on line and which show a specific train (time and date) or (ii) which include a reservation and can only be used on a specified train.

Tickets for Trenitalia regional trains are valid for only one day and for only four hours from the time of validation. Passengers can continue to their destination on the same train if still travelling when the four hours expire. If a ticket was purchased in advance it can be changed for one valid on a different date, but this must be done before its validity starts; there may be a charge for this.

Many smaller stations no longer have staffed booking offices or may be staffed for only a limited period. Ticket machines may be provided but not always; it may be necessary to purchase tickets from a neighbouring tobacconist (Tabacchi), bar or similar establishment, which may be some distance from the station. A list of these is usually posted at the station. Ticket machines too may be broken or out of service. Some ticket machines give change in coins but others give only a credit slip, printed on a blank ticket. These credits can be exchanged for cash at any FS booking office or used to purchase further tickets. This can be somewhat time consuming as the transaction has to be keyed into the system, evidence of identity (such as a passport) presented and a receipt signed.

Passengers holding international return tickets issued in Italy are required to have them stamped by the train conductor upon re-entering the country. Tickets may be used any time up to two months from date of sale, but are valid for a much shorter period from time of stamping. Those for journeys less than 200 km are valid for 6 hours from the time of stamping; those for 200 km or more for 24 hours.

Reservations are compulsory on National service trains - defined as Frecciarossa Alta Velocità [Red Arrow High Speed], Frecciargento Alta Velocità [Silver Arrow High Speed], Frecciabianca [White Arrow], Intercity (IC), Intercity Notte [night] (ICN), EuroCity (EC) and EuroCity Notte (ECN). Overnight trains offer Excelsior Wagon Lit (sleeping) cars and National Couchettes (CC and WL). Boarding these trains without a ticket will incur payment of a surcharge in addition to the ticket price. Reservations are not possible on Regional trains.

A useful regional ticket is available for the Lombardia region www.trasporti.regione.lombardia.it. Select Tariffe e agevolazioni > io Viaggio > Io viaggio ovunque in Lombardia to obtain details of the ticket. This is available for one month (Abbonamento mensile integrato) and for 1, 2, 3 or 7 (Biglietti integrati per 1, 2, 3 o 7 giorni) days. Information on its validity is found by selecting Tariffe e agevolazioni > Carta Regionale di Trasporto > Mezzi di trasporto e validità della CRT. A PDF map showing the area covered can be found on the Trenord website.

FS introduced in March 2019 a combined train+bus ticket between Roma Termini and Ciampino Airport, linked to the ATRAL bus company. This avoids the unreliability of the direct coach services and was at the time of introduction cheaper than the coach.

Tickets for private (non-FS) railways are rarely if ever available from FS ticket offices. If the railway does not have its own ticket office, tickets are normally available from a neighbouring tobacconist (Tabacchi), bar or similar establishment. Prospective travellers are strongly advised to look at the railway's website for a list of such establishments, as there may well be no indication on the premises that they sell these tickets.

Infrastructure

Infrastructure Authority

  • RFI S.p.A., generally known as Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, is responsible for infrastructure.
  • TAV S.p.A. is responsible for development of high speed routes; TAV denotes Treno Alta Velocita.
  • Italferr, the Italian State Railways Group engineering firm, operates in the Italian and international markets in the field of railway transport engineering.
  • Grandi Stazioni S.p.A. is responsible for fourteen major stations. 40% of the company is owned by Eurostazioni SpA, a joint venture of SNCF, Pirelli, Benneton and Caltagirone.

Network Statement

The Network Statement page gives access to downloadable Network Statements. These give very general information. Specific information about the network is provided on a website with restricted access.

Gauge

Standard. Some private lines are narrow gauge.

Electrification

3kV dc. The majority of the Torino – Novara – Milano – Bologna – Firenze and Roma – Napoli high speed lines are electrified at 25 kV 50 Hz, as is Milano – Verona – Padova - still under construction. .

Rule of the road

Left

Distances

The best source of information on distances is the "Atlante ferroviaro d'Italia e Slovenia". See Printed Maps.

Distances for individual FS lines are also available at https://normativaesercizio.rfi.it/Default.aspx

Other Railways

ARST S.p.A: Passenger services on narrow-gauge lines in Sardegna. Operating throughout the year: Sassari - Sorso; Sassari - Alghero; Nuoro - Macomer; Cagliari - Isili. (950mm gauge). See Sardegna obscure services for details of summer services over some other lines. arst.sardegna.it/index.html

Ente Autonomo Volturno E.A.V. S.r.l has brought together various operators in the Napoli area. S Maria Capua Vetere - Piedimonte Matese, Cancello - Benevento; Circumvesuviana lines south and east of Napoli (950mm gauge, electrified at 1500 V dc); Linee Flegree lines Napoli - Licola and Torregaveta; Metro Arcobaleno. www.eavsrl.it/web

Ferrotramviaria S.p.A.: Bari - Bitonto - Barletta (via Palese and via Aerostazione); Fesca S Girolama - Cecilia (all electrified). The passenger service between Ruvo and Andria has been suspended since 2016. www.ferrovienordbarese.it

Ferrovia Circumetnea: Catania Borgo - Randazzo - Riposto (950mm gauge). Also operates the Catania Metro (standard gauge, electrified). www.circumetnea.it

Ferrovia del Gargano S.r.l.: San Severo - Peschici (electrified); Foggia - Lucera www.ferroviedelgargano.com

Ferrovia Genova Casella S.r.l.: Genova Piazza Manin - Casella (metre gauge, electrified) www.ferroviagenovacasella.it

Ferrovie Appulo-Lucane: Bari Centrale - Gravina in Puglia - Avigliano Luciana; Potenza Citta - Avigliano Citta; Altamura – Matera Sud (950 mm gauge). The service is suspended between Genzano and Avigliano Lucania www.fal-srl.it

Ferrovie della Calabria S.r.l.: Passenger train services operate between Catanzaro Lido, Catanzaro Città and Soveria Mannelli only. No service is advertised on other lines: Cosenza to Soveria Mannelli and S Giovanni in Fiore and Gioia Tauro to Sinopoli and Cinquefrondi, apart from a tourist operation between Moccone - San Nicola Silvana Mansio on the line to S Giovanni in Fiore. www.ferroviedellacalabria.it

Ferrovie del Sud Est e Servizi Automobolistici S.r.l.: Bari - Martina-Franca - Taranto; Mungivacca - Casamassima - Putignano; Martina-Franca - Lecce; Novoli - Gallipoli - Casarano; Nardo - Casanaro - Gagliano-Leuca; Lecce - Gagliano-Leuca; Nardo - Zollino; Maglie – Otranto www.fseonline.it. The railway has been a subsidiary of Trenitalia since August 2016.

Gruppo Torinese Trasporti GTT S.p.A.: Torino Dora - Ceres (electrified); Settimo - Rivarolo Canavese (electrified); Rivarolo Canavese – Pont Canavese (service suspended); Sassi – Superga (electrified rack railway) www.gtt.to.it

Rete Ferroviaria Toscana (RTF) S.p.A.: Sinalunga - Arezzo - Pratovecchio Stia (electrified). The service is operated by Trasporto Ferroviario Toscano S.p.A. www.trasportoferroviariotoscano.it

SAD Trasporto Locale S.p.A/SAD Nahverkehr GmbH: Merano/Meran – Malles Venosta/Mals; Maria Himmelfahrt/L'Assunta - Klobenstein/Collalbo (electrified tramway). The company operates local trains on RFI lines in the Bozen/Bolzano area. www.sad.it/it

Società Ferrovie Udine Cividale s.r.I.: Udine - Cividale del Friuli www.ferrovieudinecividale.it

Società Sistemi Territoriali S.p.A.: Venezia Mestre – Adria www.sistemiterritorialispa.it

Società Subalpina di Imprese Ferroviare S.p.A.: Domodossola - Camedo [- Locarno (CH)] (metre gauge, electrified 1200V dc). In recent years the trading name Ferrovia Vigezzina-Centovalli has been used. www.vigezzina.com

Società Unica Abruzzese di Trasporto (T.U.A.) S.p.A.: Operates passenger services over its own new railway between Lanciano and San Vito-Lanciano and over the Teramo - Giulianova - Pescara and Pescara - San Vito-Lanciano - Vasto FS lines. Services on its other routes (including the lengthy line to Castel di Sangro) have been replaced by buses or withdrawn entirely. www.tuabruzzo.it

Trenitalia TPER is a joint venture between Trenitalia and Trasporto Passeggeri Emilia-Romagna. It operates passenger services over the lines of Ferrovie Emilia Romagna: Casalecchio Garibaldi - Vignola (electrified); Bologna Centrale - Portomaggiore (electrified); Ferrara - Codigoro; Ferrara - Poggio Rusco (electrified); Parma - Suzzara - Poggio Rusco; Guastalla - Reggio Emilia - S Lazzaro; Reggio Emilia - Ciano d'Enza; Reggio Emilia - Sassuolo; Modena - Sassuolo (electrified). It also operates local trains over RFI lines in Emilia Romagna region. www.tper.it

Trenord S.r.l is a joint venture between Ferrovienord S.p.A. and Trenitalia, which operates regional services in Lombardia. FNM (previously Ferrovie Nord Milano) owns the following lines: Milano Nord Cadorno - Asso; Milano Bovisa - Laveno Mombello Nord; Saronno - Como Nord Lago; Saronno - Novara; Saronno - Seregno; Busto Arsizio - Malpensa Aeroporto (all electrified); Brescia - Edolo; Bornato-Calino - Rovato. www.trenord.it

Trentino Trasporti S.p.A: Trento - Mezzana (metre gauge, electrified) www.ttspa.it

Umbria TPL e Mobilità S.p.A.: Terni - Perugia - Sansepolcro; Perugia Ponte S Giovanni - Perugia S Anna. Train services were replaced by buses in September 2017, pending upgrading the network, and have only resumed between Perugia Ponte S Giovanni and Città di Castello on the Sansepolcro line. www.umbriamobilita.it/it

Many private railways operate through services onto FS lines, and there are a few private lines over which FS trains regularly operate.

Tourist lines

See also Ferrovie della Sardegna

The railway museum at Trieste Campo Marzio www.retecivica.trieste.it/museofer has occasionally run historic trains over freight lines in Trieste, but appears not to have done so since 2014. In 2017 it was announced that the museum is to be renovated and managed by Fondazione FS, who wish to run special trains from it.

Metro

Catania, Genova, Milano, Napoli, Roma, Torino. Track plans for the Milano and Torino systems are available on the carto.metro.tramway.rer.funiculaire site.

Some Trenitalia suburban services are referred to "Metro" and this may give rise to confusion, particularly in Napoli.

The Roma Metro company also operates the lengthy rural line to Viterbo via Catalano.

Trams

Firenze, Genova, Klobenstein/Collalbo, Messina, Milano, Napoli, Palermo, Roma, Sassari, Torino, Trieste [which has been plagued by reliability issues and has been closed since 16 August 2016]

Some links are available on the Sinfin.net site.

See also Italy - Tram services over obscure routes.

Recent and Future Changes

General

The absorption of the Ferrovie Sud Est by the Ferrovie dello Stato Group was agreed on 23 May 2016 owing to the excessive debts of the former.

The Emilia-Romagna Region allocated funds in April 2016 to electrify the FER lines between Reggio Emilia and Sassuolo and Guastalla. Work is expected to be completed during 2020. Further electrification of the FER network is proposed, on the Parma - Guastalla - Suzzara - Poggio Rusco and Ferrara - Codigoro lines.

Most main lines in Italy are electrified and work continues on electrification of secondary routes. Work under way includes lines the line to Campobasson and various routes in the north of Veneto province. The SAD line to Malles Venosta is also being electrified.

Openings

Due to the mountainous nature of much of Italy, most lines are very scenic. However, the original railways were very slow, due to sharp curves and steep gradients. For much of the 20th century, cut offs and completely new main lines were built to speed up services. Foremost among these is the Roma - Firenze direttissima. Unlike high-speed lines in France and Germany, this does not have special signalling and can be used by most trains without modification. The high speed trunk line from Torino to Salerno is now complete, with the openings on 13 December 2009 between Novara and Milano, Milano and Bologna, Bologna and Firenze and between Napoli and Salerno, and the extension of the Roma - Napoli line from Gricignano into Napoli. The direct connection between the Roma - Napoli and Napoli - Salerno high speed lines, avoiding Napoli Centrale, became available for traffic on 13 October 2013.

The Bologna Passante, taking the high speed under Bologna Centrale, opened on 22 June 2012. The AV station on the Passante opened with limited facilities in December 2012 and fully in 2013. The next section of the High Speed Line from Milano to Venezia, from Treviglio to Brescia, opened in December 2016. The high speed line west of Brescia to Padova is still under construction. Contracts have been awarded for design and construction of a high speed line from Napoli to Frasso Telesino, between Caserta and Benevento. This is seen as the first stage of a high speed route to Bari. There is an ambitious plan for a new line, in a long tunnel under Mont Cenis, to link Torino with Lyon and the French high speed network, but this is many years from realisation.

Many other cut-offs and new lines are under construction, but work may proceed slowly and some projects are suspended periodically. Routes that include sections which have been rebuilt and diverted significantly in recent years include: Verona to Brennero, Gemona del Friuli to Tarvisio, Ventimiglia to Genova, Parma to La Spezia, parts of the Adriatic coast line, Bari to Taranto, Messina to Palermo and the railway into Siracusa from the north. Another new section of the Ventimiglia to Genova line between San Lorenzo-Cipressa and Andora opened 11 December 2016.

Recent urban developments have been construction of metros in Torino and Catania, a tram system in Sassari and a new railway, the Passante, in tunnel under the centre of Milano. The Passante runs from Certosa to Porta Vittoria and is used by FNM trains, as well as Trenitalia ones, by means of a connection from Nord Bovisa Politecnico. Some trains continue to Pioltello Limito and others from Porta Vittoria via a reinstated curve to Milano Rogoredo. Opening of the Passante has been accompanied by a reorganisation of local train services around Milano, including re-introduction of regular trains between Milano S Cristoforo and Milano Lambrate via Porta Romana. FNM has taken over operation of many local services in Lombardia.

Other recent openings and re-openings (excluding realignment and rebuilding of main lines) are:

  • In Naples Tram line 1 resumed operation between Poggioreale and via Cristoforo Colombo on 31 January 2020. The rest of Tram Line 1 and Lines 2 & 4 are still suspended due to construction of Metro Line 6.
  • Castiglione Cosentino avoiding line: One train pair daily from and to Sibari from 16 September 2019.
  • The electrification of the Bari - Casamassima - Putignano line 1 bis was inaugurated on 12 September 2019.
  • Savigliano - Saluzzo: 7 January 2019
  • Palermo - Punta Raisi: Re-opened 9 December 2018, following substantial reconstruction, including a new tunnel in Palermo.
  • Through trains from Slovenia to Trieste Centrale via Villa Opicina resumed on 9 September 2018.
  • Varese - Stabio (Switzerland) and Porto Ceresio
  • Sacile - Maniago: 10 December 2017
  • Roccapalumbra-Alla - Cammarate San Giovanni Gemini (diversion of the Palermo - Agrigento line via the Lercara Tunnel): 10 December 2017
  • Ospedale S Paolo - Cecilia (FT): 16 October 2017
  • Electrification was inaugurated between Bra and Alba on 11 December 2016
  • Malpensa Aeroporto T1 - Malpensa Aeroporto T2 (FNM): 6 December 2016
  • Portomaggiore - Dogato (FER): 3 October 2016, but the service was withdrawn from 11 June 2017
  • Marilleva - Mezzana (TT): 23 July 2016
  • Apricena Città - San Nicandro Garganico (FdG): 13 June 2016 (Replacing the original line from S Severo)
  • Fesca S Girolamo - Aerostazione - Bitonto (FT): 19 July 2013
  • S Severo - Apricena Città (FdG): 14 December 2014

A line avoiding Foggia, on the course of a curve closed in 1964, opened on 5 July 2015. This links the Benevento and Bari lines and passenger trains started using it with effect from 28 June 2017; see route IT20/146. With effect from 11 March 2016, excursion trains to Porto Empedocle (in Sicily) were extended 0.7 km to Porto Empedocle Succarsale, which was closed in 1978; see route IT20/162.

The Ferrovie della Calabria reportedly awarded a contract in July 2014 for the construction of a new 5 km line between Dulcino and Catanzaro Germaneto (the FS station outside the city). In April 2015 funds were allocated for completion of the first section (Valle Aurelia - Vigna Clara) of the never completed Roma northern ring line. It was due to open in June 2016 but there is no sign of when this will happen. In December 2016 funds were allocated for completion of the line from Ferrandina (between Potenza and Metaponto) and Matera, where construction work started in 1985. No date for completion has been specified.

Closures

After a period of stability, there were significant line closures from 2006, mainly because of infrastructure in poor condition and no funds for maintenance. A few lines have closed and been re-opened, but most have remained closed. In most cases a substitute bus service has been provided, but some of these have later been withdrawn. In recent years the rate of closure has slowed somewhat.

Services over the Ferroive del Sardegna lines Laconi - Sorgono and Seui - Arbatax were withdrawn from 24 June 2016, but were reinstated in 2017 except between Seui and Gairo. However, there were no trains between Laconi and Sorgono in 2018 and the closed section of the Arbatax line has been extended to Sadali.

The trains between Sassari and Alghero were replaced by buses from October 2018, because of defects with the signalling system. It reopened on 23 November 2019.

Train service withdrawals in 2018:

  • 409 Rovato Borgo - Bornato Calino
  • 4 Bologna Corticella - Bologna S Ruffillo (8 December): Use of this section of the Bologna Cintura by a few Frecciarossa trains ceased, following earlier completion of a link from the Padove line to the low level platforms at Bologna Centrale. This also brought to an end passenger use of the connection to the high speed line to Firenze from Bologna S Ruffillo.
  • 172 Seregno - Carnate-Usmate (8 December)

Train service withdrawals in 2017:

  • - Rivarolo Canavese - Pont Canavese (GTT) (23 May): May be temporary, but signalling improvements are required.
  • - Portomaggiore - Dogato (FER) (11 June): Amazingly, this newly-constructed line had opened only eight months earlier, but is to be converted into a cycle path.
  • 26 Tortona - Novi Ligure (4 September): Said to be a temporary closure for a period of four years, in connection with construction of a high-speed line between Milano and Genova.
  • - Sansepolcro - Terni and Perugia Ponte S Giovanni - Perugia S Anna (FCU) (29 September): Also apparently a temporary closure.
  • - Cagnano Varano - Peschici Calenella (FG) (2 December): A result of many unmodernised level crossings on the line. However, the company apparently intends to modernise them and reopen the line at some point.

Train service withdrawals in 2015:

  • 60 Ancona - Ancona Marittima (13 December)
  • 112 Aosta - Prè Saint Didier (24 December)

The 950mm ATAC line from Roma Laziali to Giardinetti was cut back 3km to terminate at Centocelle with effect from 3 August 2015 as this section was duplicated by an extension of Metro Line C.

Train service withdrawals in 2014:

  • 130 (Novara -) Vignale - Varallo Sesia (15 September)
  • 88/354 Paola avoiding line (21 December)

Train service withdrawals in 2013:

  • 330 Benevento - Bosco Redole (13 February) because of a landslide
  • 125 Vercelli - Casale Monferrato (14 June)
  • 286 Fabriano - Pergola (13 November) because of a landslide; the line had re-opened as recently as 16 April 2012
  • 134 Oleggio - Laveno Mombello (December) but had suffered from bus substitution in recent years
  • 157 Piacenza – Castelvetro (December) which had suffered frequent cancellations because of a shortage of units
  • M56 Pisa Aeroporto - Pisa Centrale (December) for replacement by a more direct people mover, which did not open until 18 March 2017

Services between (Gravina in Puglia -) Genzano and Pietragalla (- Potenza) (Ferrovie Appulo-Lucane) were substituted by buses from 24 June 2013 or earlier for engineering work which was then expected to last 6 or more months. From 15 December 2014 the section affected was extended from Pietragalla to Avigliano Lucania, with the line south of there served only by trains between Potenza and Avigliano Città. As at June 2018 there is still no indication of when or if the line will reopen.

Following the introduction of high-speed services between Milano and Napoli there is far less use of connections on and off the Firenze - Roma direttissima. The direttissima is being resignalled to ERTMS standards and there are plans to convert it from 3,000 volts dc to 25 kV ac, at least between Arezzo and Orte. This may well result in no further passenger use of connections to the old main line at Chiusi Nord, Chiusi Sud, Orvieto Nord, Orvieto Sud and Orte Nord.

Older Changes

For details of older changes see Italy - Older General Information.

Special notes

Following a serious, head-on collision on Ferrotramviaria line between Bari and Barletta, from September 2016 a 50 km/hr speed limit was imposed on some local (non-FS) lines which do not have an adequate block working system. From August 2016 there were no passenger trains between Ruvo di Puglia and Andria, pending signalling improvements. The line between Ruvo di Puglia and Corato re-opened on 4 March 2019, with a suggestion of mid-2020 to Andria.

Theft is a particular problem at main stations. Luggage should be closely watched at all times and precautions taken against pickpockets. Some thieves are very young and many operate in groups. A common technique is to create a distraction, such as engaging a traveller in conversation, to draw attention from robbery by accomplices. Crime can also be a problem on overnight trains, which may also be very crowded. It is sensible to book a couchette, at modest cost, as these provide more space and greater security.

Railway police will be found at all but local stations. They, or other Trenitalia staff, may raise objections to photography or waiting for trains on platforms, rather than in waiting rooms, and seem particularly keen to prevent anyone crossing the tracks where a subway ("sottopassagio") is provided. At some main stations access to platforms is confined to those with travel tickets, and tickets are sometimes checked at platform barriers.

At places served by private railways and Trenitalia interchange arrangements vary considerably. In certain cases there is significant integration and co-ordination of operations, but at some places connections seem unplanned and merely by chance, so trains may not wait for the other operator’s late running service. Private railways may use the FS station, but often have their own platforms and booking office (often private railway tickets are obtained from the station bar or café). Their services may not be listed on the Trenitalia arrivals and departures posters. There are entirely separate stations at a few places. Through tickets are usually available between private railways and Trenitalia, but some private railways do not issue return tickets for local journeys.

Departure information at stations, especially in the South, can be sparse and incorrect. Services operated by Ferrovie del Sud Est may vary from the published timetable, particularly south of Lecce. Trains depart at the advertised times, but passengers may be required to change trains at junctions where a through service is shown and, conversely, some connections may work as through trains.

There is a passenger and goods train ferry between Villa S Giovanni and Messina connecting the mainland system with railways on the island of Sicilia. Sardegna is no longer served by train ferry from Civitavecchia on the mainland to Golfo Aranci as the link span and associated trackwork at Civitavecchia were dismantled in Summer 2015. It had been used only for rolling stock transfers for a number of years previously. Any railway vehicles needing to be transferred to Sardegna are conveyed from Villa S Giovanni or Messina.

The Italian for "motor coach" is "pullman", so any reference to travel by pullman is to a trip by road. Although "carrozza" usually means a railway carriage, a journey advertised to be by carrozza (rather than by train) will use a horse-drawn road vehicle.

Vatican City

RFI owns the 1.27 km Vatican Railway, the world's shortest international railway, built by FS in accordance with the Lateran Treaty of 1929 and opened on 2 October 1934. Until recent years the railway had been used only very rarely by special trains, and with only four Papal trains ever - in 1962, 1979, 2002 and 2011. However, it was electrified in October 2013, which made it considerably easier to operate through trains from the FS network as it was no longer necessary to provide diesel haulage over this short branch. A special tourist train from the Vatican City to Albano Laziale was introduced in September 2015. See route Roma S Pietro - Città del Vaticano for further details.

See also