Netherlands - General Information
National Railway System
National Railway Operator
Nederlandse Spoorwegen (https://www.ns.nl/en NS]) is the principal passenger carrier, which operates through various subsidiary companies, including:
- NS Reizigers - Domestic passenger services
- NS International - International passenger services.
Thalys services to the Netherlands are operated by a stand-alone company owned by SNCF (62%), SNCB/NMBS (28%) and DB (10%); NS is not a partner.
There is no longer a national freight operator. The former NS freight operation has been sold and is a subsidiary of DB (see below). Open access freight operators have a considerable market share. Current freight operators in The Netherlands as at 2023 are DB Cargo Nederland (German), Lineas Nederland (Belgian), LTE Netherlands (Austrian), Captrain (French) and RTB Cargo German) amoungst others.
Numeric 84; alpha NL
As of 14 December 2014, every station should be served twice an hour.
- PC and smartphone: Travel Information.
- Iphone application: Reisplanner.
- Android application: Reisplanner
- Windows application: Treinplanner
Actual Train Times
By December 2023, NS no longer produces timetables in pdf format on its website.
Rover offers a paper Spoorboekje for 2022-2023. NS discontinued paper timetables after the 2009-2010 edition. Rover took the publication over from Treinreiziger.
Real Time Train Information
Real time train running information is available on the Treinenradar, Treinposities and Spoorkaart websites. Moreover, public transport Apps like OV9292 and NS Reisplanner offer real time journey information.
- European Railway Atlas (All-Europe Edition) by M.G. Ball.
- European Railway Atlas (Regional Series - France and Benelux) by M.G. Ball.
- Rail Map 2021 by Treinreiziger.nl
- NS provides a map with all passenger train service numbers and frequencies: Spoorkaart 2022.
- Prorail provides a detailed geographical map.
- Sporenplan has a series of on-line maps and schematic track diagrams. Click on "Sporenplannen" on the left hand side for a map showing the countries covered.
- Thorsten Büker's Map of Benelux network Although this remains on-line, the Büker maps are no longer being maintained. Last updated March 2018.
- Maps and Plans - Netherlands
In the course of 2023, paying train journeys by debit card (check-in and check-out) will be introduced. So far only public transport in Amsterdam and Den Haag has introduced this payment service. Once every 24 hours the journeys are collected.
All stations are equipped with ticket machines which all accept debit and credit cards (V PAY, Maestro, Mastercard, Visa and American Express). However, some foreign Visa debit cards are not accepted. Some machines accept coins as well. All machines offer domestic tickets and some provide international tickets to Belgium, and a selection of destinations in Germany. All tickets contain a chip to validate your ticket. Booking offices at small stations have almost all been closed. A surcharge is payable at booking offices when buying a ticket which is available from a ticket machine.
The smart card OV Chipkaart is the normal ticket on public transport and can be bought at any ticket machine. Machines that add value to an OV Chipkaart accept debit cards issued outside the Netherlands. However, only a few machines (such as at some tobacconists) accept credit cards. Paper tickets continue to be issued from machines and booking offices for rail journeys.
Information on tickets and passes can be found on the NS Individual tickets & supplements page. A supplement is required to travel on the HSL between Rotterdam and Schiphol Airport unless the passenger has a valid international ticket (which includes Interrail). The supplement can be purchased from vending machines; there are red validation machines for such supplements on the platforms.
Note: ALL tickets from machines MUST be touched in and out with ALL operators used in the correct order, when changing operators en-route. Travellers may be fined if they do not do this.
NS-Zonetaxi (formerly known as treintaxi) tickets include a taxi from/to the railway station for a fixed fare. The service is available in most mid-size towns, but not in Utrecht, Amsterdam, Den Haag and Rotterdam. When riding on single or return tickets, trein-taxi tickets should be bought at the departure station. For the return trip by taxi, tickets are best bought in advance, but the taxi driver sells tickets with a small surcharge.
Although more local services are to be franchised over the next few years, a uniform ticketing system, including NS and all franchisees, is being retained.
Special offers: Supermarket chains may offer cheap day tickets from time to time for a limited period. At Amsterdam Schiphol Airport both NS and GVB Amsterdam sell tickets for public transport connections to Amsterdam.NS-Voordeelwinkel has special offers for Eindhoven Airport. Treinreiziger offers news about the Dutch railwaysystem, including the availabillity of discounted tickets.
ProRail owns and manages the NS infrastructure and is responsible for traffic control and capacity allocation, under the authority of the minister of transport. On 1 July 2015 the operation of the Betuweroute was transferred to ProRail and the previous owners, Keyrail, ceased to exist.
Inspectie Leefomgeving en Transport, part of the Ministry of Transport, is responsible for safety and rolling stock certification.
The Prorail Website gives access to various NS Network Statement documents.
1500 V dc. New high-speed lines and the Betuwe trunk freight line between Rotterdam and Zevenaar (- Emmerich (Germany)) are electrified at 25 kV 50 Hz; Zevenaar - Emmerich was converted to 25 kV in 2016 so that freight trains have to change voltage only once, although it caused passenger trains to have to change voltage twice. The Hanzelijn is not officially a high-speed line, so is 1500 V dc. Large-scale conversion to 25 kV 50 Hz in the long term was envisaged but this was abandoned in the late 1990s as too expensive. In 2014 Prorail started a feasibility study into upgrading to 3000 V dc. Metros and Tramways are 750 V dc, with third rail used on the Amsterdam and Rotterdam metros.
Rule of the road
Right, but most lines are reversibly signalled. The following lines have left-hand running:
- the high speed line from Rotterdam Lombardijen (where there is a flying crossover) to the Belgian border
- the fast lines between Utrecht Centraal and Bilthoven; there is a flying crossover west of Bilthoven
- from Roosendaal to the Belgian border
- from Maastricht to the Belgian border
There are connections between the high speed line and the old line to Breda where they run parallel south of Lage Zwaluwe, at which the two lines are handed in opposite directions. This results in the two southbound lines (which are adjacent) being linked merely by a long crossover whereas the connection between the northbound lines crosses over all four tracks on a flyover.
Wikipedia gives distances for all lines in the Netherlands. Click on the line wanted, and on the right distances for stations are given. Sporeneplan provides an alternative source. Click on the line wanted to reach a schematic line plan, alongside which distances for stations (named in abbreviated code) are given. Neither is an official page and can be out of date. If any user can point to an official source for distance information the compilers would be glad to hear.
Private operators have franchises to work a number of local passenger services over NS lines, thus:
- Arriva Nederland: Leeuwarden - Harlingen, Leeuwarden - Stavoren, Leeuwarden - Groningen, Groningen - Roodeschool/Eemshaven/Delfzijl, Groningen - Veendam/Bad Nieuweschans - Leer (D), Apeldoorn - Zutphen, Zutphen - Winterswijk, Winterswijk - Arnhem, Arnhem - Tiel, Nijmegen - Venlo - Roermond - Maastricht/Heerlen, Maastricht Randwijck - Heerlen - Kerkrade/Aachen (D).
- Abellio (part of NS): Gouda - Alphen aan den Rijn, Arnhem - Emmerich (D).
- Blauwnet (Arriva/Keolis/Syntus): Enschede - Almelo - Mariënberg, Kampen - Zwolle - Emmen, Zutphen - Hengelo - Oldenzaal.
- Breng: Doetinchem - Arnhem.
- Q-Buzz (R-Net): Dordrecht - Geldermalsen
- Valleilijn (Connexxion): Amersfoort - Ede-Wageningen.
In addition next cross border services are operated: Keolis: Hengelo - Bielefeld(D), DB Regio: Enschede - Gronau - Münster / Dortmund Abellio: Arnhem - Düsseldorf (RE19) Regiobahn: Venlo - Düsseldorf - Hamm (RE13)(D), NMBS: local services Roosendaal - Antwerpen (B) NMBS: local services Maastricht - Luik / Liège (B)
The German based Bentheimer Eisenbahn owns and operates its trunk line from Bentheim to the border at Laarwald and a further 2 km on to Coevorden. The line is freight only; there has never been any significant border crossing passenger traffic, but freight has regained importance in recent times. Coevorden effectively serves as a German rail bridgehead into the Netherlands, traffic mainly consisting of containers that are subsequently road-hauled into the northern provinces. There are plans to introduce passenger services between Coevorden en Neuenhaus (D) by BE by 2024.
A list of Tourist & Museum Railways and Tramways in English is available on the Historisch Railvervoer Nederland (HRN) website.
Rail cycling is possible on the following sections of line:
- Grenzland Draisine: based at Kranenburg in Germany, on the former Kleve [DE] - Nijmegen [NL] line, the Grenzenlose trip to Groesbeek (5.5 km one way) covers a portion in the Netherlands
- Spoorfietsen: Hengelo - Twekkelo (a short stretch of Hengelo - Boekelo line, latterly serving AKZO factory)
Track plans for all metro systems in the Netherlands are available on the Gleisplanweb site.
Amsterdam, Den Haag, Rotterdam, Utrecht.
Track plans for all tram systems in the Netherlands are available on the Gleisplanweb site.
Recent and Future Changes
Work is in progress to extend RET Metro line B from Hoek van Holland Haven to the site of the former Hoek Van Holland Strand (a further 1.1km to the beach), opening of regular service is expected to commence at 31st of March 2023.
European Sleeper will start to operate from 25 May 2023 a night service from Brussels via Roosendaal, Rotterdam, The Hague via Bad Bentheim to Berlin, and in 2024 extended to Prague.
Passenger services are to resume between Veendam and Stadskanaal in 2024. Simultaneously introduction of passenger services between Coevorden - Neuenhaus (D) and on to Bad Bentheim (D) are expected by 2024.
The proposed electrification of Nijmegen - Venlo - Roermond has been cancelled because of the increasing cost of materials and the effects of the coronavirus pandemic on the supply chain.
The new 'Friesenbrücke' bridge, facilitating the passenger traffic Groningen - Bad Nieuweschans - Leer (D) should be constructed by 2024.
Long term projects: On 10 October 2017, the coalition government agreed plans to reopen Weert - Hamont, with co-financing from regional authorities, following the reopening of Neerpelt - Hamont by SNCB. On 9 November the governments concluded an agreement to electrify the line.
The "Iron Rhine" freight line between Roermond and Dalheim (Germany) is planned to reopened for traffic between Antwerpen and the Ruhr. However this has been delayed by a dispute between the Dutch and Belgian governments, which has gone to arbitration.
Landgraaf - Herzogenrath (Germany) has been upgraded for cargo traffic in September 2022, while Arriva EMUs are running between Aachen Hbf and Maastricht since the electrification in 2018. The planned through Arriva service between Aachen and Liège has been delayed and until further notice NMBS continue to operate a separate train service between Maastricht and Liège.
The last museum trains to use the Blauwkapel Kruispunt, where the line northwards from the Nederlands Spoorwegmuseum at Utrecht Maliebaan station makes a flat crossing with the Utrecht - Amersfoort line, ran on 14 May 2022. The north - south link at Blauwkapel is to be removed. This will not affect the shuttle trains between Utrecht Centraal station and the museum, which will continue to run.
By December 2021 Zürich - Amsterdam NightJet services were introduced, complementing the Vienna - Amsterdam services which started on 25th of May 2021. As of November 28, cargo trains can run via RET Metro line B to Vlaardingen Oost. There is a switch to the Vulcaanhaven emplacement, connecting the nearby oil terminals.
The (Rotterdam -) Schiedam Centrum - Hoek van Holland Hoekse Lijn line closed to passengers as an NS line on 1 April 2017 and reopened as RET Metro line B between Nesselande and Hoek van Holland on 30 September 2019, thus bringing a new connection into use between Schiedam Centrum metro station and Schiedam Nieuwland. The former passenger connection between the Metro and the ProRail/NS network is retained for freight. Until the line onwards to Hoek van Holland Strand plus a 1km extension to a station much nearer the Beach is opened, RET trains are temporarily using the old Hoek van Holland International Boat Train platforms.
The new station of Lansingerland-Zoetermeer on the NS Den Haag to Gouda line opened on 9 December 2018 and the extension to tram line 4 (RandstadRail4) from Zoetermeer Javalaan to the new station opened on 19 May 2019.
The 'Intercity Direct' service between Amsterdam and Brussel/Bruxelles (the successor to the former Benelux service) was diverted via the HSL Zuid and Breda [reverse] from 9 April 2018, thus opening for passenger traffic the curve southwards from Breda towards the Belgian border.
For details of older changes see Netherlands - Older General Information.
Many trains worked by multiple units split en route to serve more than one destination. External displays may show the destination of each portion; newer train sets are provided with internal displays as well. The number of each unit is displayed prominently in each carriage and when trains divide public address announcements usually refer to these to inform passengers where each unit is going.
The freight line to Terneuzen is accessible only from Gent in Belgium.
NS has ordered 79 EMU 'Intercity New Generation' at Alstom, based on Coradia platform for use on the HSL by 2023.
NS has ordered 20 EMU 'Intercity New Generation' at Alstom, based on Coradia platform for services to Brussels by 2025.
Most stations have free internet access via KPN hotspots. NS Intercity trains have free internet by 'Wifi in de trein' provided by T-mobile; other operators like Arriva and Veolia offer free wifi in their trains. However loco hauled services are not provided with wifi.